Hematuria is the medical term for blood in your urine. Generally, people with hematuria have urine pink, red, or brown. But not all hematuria can be seen with the human eye. Some of them can only be seen and recognized under a microscope.
If you notice blood in your urine, please don’t ignore it. Although in most cases, people with hematuria do not feel painful, you’d better see your doctor anytime you see red-colored urine. Especially when you have the following symptoms:
- Burning pain when peeing
- Need to pee often
- Smelly or cloudy pee，
- Pain in the sides or lower back
- Pain in the lower back or groin
- Hardly to pee, or needing to pee suddenly and often ( Older men in over-50s)
What are the types of hematuria?
There are two main types of hematuria: gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria.
Gross hematuria can be visible to the naked eye and may appear pink, red, or brown, sometimes referred to as tea-colored. That’s because there’s enough blood in your urine.
Microscopic hematuria can’t be seen by the human eye because there are only three or more red blood cells per high power field. Only looking at a sample of urine under a microscope can confirm microscopic hematuria.
What causes blood in urine?
Blood cells can leak into urine from anywhere in the urinary tract. Various common problems can cause this leakage, including:
- An infection, such as a UTI (urinary tract infection) or virus.
- Kidney infections (pyelonephritis)
- Bladder or Kidney stones
- Sexual activity
- Strenuous exercise
- Injury, such as from sports
Other, more serious problems can also cause blood in your urine, such as: 
- Cancer, such as kidney or bladder cancer.
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Blood clots or diseases that cause blood clotting
- Sickle cell disease
If you are female, it will cause your bloody urine:
- Endometriosis—a problem in women that occurs when the kind of tissue that normally lines the uterus grows somewhere else, such as the bladder.
If you are male, you should consider:
- Infection of prostate
- An enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) or prostate cancer
- Recent urinary tract procedures such as catheterization, circumcision, surgery, or kidney biopsy
According to the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, roughly 3 percent to 4 percent of children will experience microscopic blood in their urine. It may be caused by:
- Strenuous exercise
- Acute nephritis
- Congenital abnormalities
- Urinary stones.
- Coagulation disorders.
- Mechanical trauma
- Nephritic Syndrome, such as IgA nephropathy, Post-streptococcal
glomerulonephritis, Benign familial hematuria, and Alport syndrome.
- Sickle cell trait or disease.
There may not be blood in your urine if:
- You’ve recently eaten beetroot – this can turn your pee pink
- You’re taking a new medicine – some medicines can turn pee red or brown
- It’s happening during your period
Blood that looks like it is in the urine may actually be coming from other sources, such as:
- The vagina (in women)
- Ejaculation, often due to a prostate problem (in men)
- A bowel movement
Who is more likely to develop hematuria?
Up to one in five people in the general population have red blood cells in the urine and these factors will make people more likely to develop hematuria:
- Enlarged prostate
- Older age
- A recent infection
- Family history
- Take certain medications, such as blood thinners, aspirin, and other pain relievers, and antibiotics
- Urinary stones
- Strenuous exercise
How is hematuria diagnosed?
Your doctor professional diagnoses hematuria or the cause of the hematuria with physical examination and medical history. There will be some tests that you may take:
- Urine dipstick test
- Urine culture
- Blood tests such as PT, PTT, or INR tests
- Complete blood count (CBC)
Depending on the suspected cause, other tests may be ordered, including:
- CT scan of the abdomen
- Kidney (renal) biopsy.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
The treatment will depend on the cause of blood in the urine.
Blood in urine treatment
-There is no treatment for the common condition. Especially if the color is light, or it just occurs 1-2 times.
-If the condition is caused by a urinary tract infection, it is treated with antibiotics.
-When the hematuria is related to stones, you can take medication, or have surgery.
-If you are found to have kidney or bladder cancer, the treatment will include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
How can I prevent hematuria?
- Drink plenty of water daily.
- Urinate immediately after sexual intercourse.
- Practice good hygiene.
- Avoid excess salt and certain foods like spinach and rhubarb.
- Refrain from smoking.
- Limit your exposure to chemicals.